The British Herpetological Society

The Herpetological Journal is the Society's prestigious quarterly scientific journal. Articles are listed in Biological Abstracts, Current Awareness in Biological Sciences,Current Contents, Science Citation Index, and Zoological Record.

 ISSN 0268-0130

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pdf 04. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection and treatment in the salamanders Ambystoma andersoni, A. dumerilii and A. mexicanum


Open Access


Authors: Christopher J. Michaels, Matthew Rendle, Cathy Gibault, Javier Lopez, Gerardo Garcia, Matthew W. Perkins, Suzetta Cameron & Benjamin Tapley

Abstract: In order to better understand the impacts and treatment of infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) it is important to document host species, the effect of infection and response to treatment protocols. Here we report asymptomatic Bd infection detected through duplex qPCR screening of three Mexican ambystomatid salamanders; Ambystoma andersoni, Ambystoma dumerilii and Ambystoma mexicanum at three zoo collections, and A. andersoni and A. mexicanum in a private collection. Bsal was tested for but not detected. We also report the effectiveness and side effects of five treatment protocols in these species. Using the antifungal agent itraconazole, A. dumerilii were cleared of infection without side-effects using the granulated preparation (Sporanox). Morbidity and mortality occurred when A. dumerilii and A. andersoni were treated using a liquid oral preparation of the itraconazole (Itrafungol); infection was successfully cleared in surviving specimens of the latter species. Ambystoma mexicanum was successfully cleared without any side-effects using Itrafungol. Mortality and morbidity were likely caused by toxic effects of some component on the liquid preparation of itraconazole, but aspects of water quality and husbandry cannot be ruled out.

Key words: Bd, axolotl, Ambystoma, chytridiomycosis, itraconazole

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Please note that as from Volume 31 Number 1 (January 2021) on, the Herpetological Journal will be available as an online publication only - the last print edition will be Volume 30 Number 4.   

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